Diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseaseshas a number of features. Primarily,diet for heart diseaseyou should limit your salt intake. Indeed, with heart failure, water-salt metabolism is disturbed, sodium ions are retained in the body, and this, in turn, leads to the accumulation of fluid and the appearance of edema, which, naturally, will complicate the work of an already sick heart.

Diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseaseshas a number of features. First of all, you should limit your salt intake. Indeed, with heart failure, water-salt metabolism is disturbed, sodium ions are retained in the body, and this, in turn, leads to the accumulation of fluid and the appearance of edema, which, naturally, will complicate the work of an already sick heart.

How much salt can be consumed per day is usually decided by the doctor individually for each patient. But on average, the norm does not exceed 5-6 g, and in some, especially severe cases, salt should be abandoned altogether.

The liquid should not be overused either. Usually, doctors recommend drinking up to one and a half liters of liquid a day, including soups, jelly. But without water in general, it is also impossible, since otherwise the excretion of nitrogenous metabolic products will be difficult, respectively, the patient may develop weakness, constipation, which is also undesirable in case of heart failure, which accompanies many cardiovascular diseases. Such as ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart defects, cardiomyopathy and many others. So, it is better for heart patients to quench their thirst with weak tea, perhaps fruit tea. You should not drink coffee or, if you drink it, it is weak with milk.

Diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseasessuggests that the diet should be as rich in trace elements as potassium and magnesium. After all, if sodium in the patient's body is delayed, then potassium, on the contrary, intensively leaves him. Potassium deficiency can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias. Potassium and magnesium are two very important trace minerals. Potassium is necessary for the normal functioning of the heart muscle, and magnesium - for blood vessels. Therefore, heart patients are advised to eat prunes, nuts, beets, potatoes, cabbage, that is, those foods in which potassium is found in large quantities. Potassium is also rich in citrus fruits, buckwheat, oatmeal, rice, black and red currants, raspberries, cloudberries, cranberries, gooseberries. Magnesium is rich in cereals, bread, walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, sunflower seeds, watermelon, seaweed.

Patients with cardiovascular diseases should remember that food should be light, you should not overeat, and the diet should be fractional, that is, you should eat a little, but 5-6 times a day. After all, a large amount of food immediately entering the stomach is a great additional load not only on the digestive system, but also on the cardiovascular system.

With heart failure, the acid-base balance shifts to the acidic side. Milk and fermented milk products, vegetables, herbs, fruits, berries will help to restore it. However, for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, with flatulence, most of the vegetables should be used baked or stewed.

Patients should also limit sugar in their diet. It can contribute to the appearance of edema, which also complicates the work of the heart. It is necessary to give up fatty foods, especially if the patient is overweight. It is better to eat lean meat (boiled chicken, beef, etc. ), as well as lean fish. Side dishes for such meat should be vegetable (boiled potatoes, cabbage, carrots, zucchini, etc. ). Soups should be eaten vegetarian: vegetable, dairy and even fruit. Overweight patients with heart failure limit their consumption of bread (no more than two to three slices per day).

The amount of products containing animal fats (animal oil, fatty meat, sour cream), as well as eggs, should be drastically limited. Fish and vegetable oil, especially unrefined oil, are extremely useful.

Currently, the popularity of the so-called Mediterranean diet is growing, which, according to research, will effectively prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases and their complications (See a separate article in our guide).

In any case, the nutrition of patients with heart failure should be carried out under the supervision of a cardiologist and dietitian.

Mediterranean diet

The peoples of the Mediterranean have a very common sense of what we really need to eat. The Mediterranean diet is not a diet in the full sense of the word, rather it is a system that describes the type of food in the region, the tradition of cooking. The inhabitants of the Mediterranean have the lowest death rate from cardiovascular diseases, and in fact they eat cheese, meat and alcohol. Thus, it can be called a peculiar, non-classical and less harsh diet for heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases.

The Mediterranean diet is not designed specifically for weight loss, nor is it rigid. At the same time, it makes it possible to choose healthy foods that do not contain animal fats, sugars and canned foods, which are so rich in our daily menu. The foundation of the Mediterranean diet should be the foundation of your daily diet. This means the elimination of canned food, frozen meals, all heavy British food.

Important facts about the Mediterranean diet were presented back in January 1993 at a conference at the Harvard University School of Public Health and Oldways Preservation & Exchange Trust, dedicated to the study of the influence of the dietary traditions of the inhabitants of the Mediterranean countries - Crete, Greece, regions of southern Italy and northern Africa - on a phenomenallow level of chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system. Italians, in particular, have always intuitively understood that such a combination of products is the most suitable to compensate for the lack of meat, and it was the culinary combinations of these ingredients that gave life to the rich, colorful Italian cuisine. After examining more than twenty thousand Greek citizens, scientists have concluded that people who follow the Mediterranean diet reduce the risk of death from cancer by 24 percent and by 33 percent from heart disease.

Studies on the effect of the Mediterranean diet on the body have shown that those who eat according to the classic "Mediterranean diet" are three times more likely to survive than people who consume food with high cholesterol. Study leader Dr. Roberto Marchioli stressed that people with frequent heart attacks can at least reduce their frequency by eliminating foods containing saturated fats, such as oil, from their diet. In addition, in the course of the study, it was found that taking a dietary supplement of polyunsaturated acid n-3, which is contained in the specific fat of certain types of fish, has an extremely beneficial effect on the work of the heart muscle.

Mediterranean peoples eat a lot of fresh fish and other fresh products, but they consume much less canned food. Recent studies have shown that vegetable oils, in particular olive and fish oils, are necessary for the body to produce prostaglandins. These are hormones, substances that regulate cell metabolism, thereby preventing heart attacks, heart attacks and many other diseases. It has been noted that a small amount of alcohol also promotes the production of prostaglandins.

According to the European Heart Network, more than 50% of a person's daily caloric needs must be replenished with complex carbohydrates, for which pasta is the leader among foods, making this wonderful product an integral part of the Mediterranean diet. According to Francisco Perez, professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Cordoba, the Mediterranean diet is an ideal alternative to many modern diets and should be considered as a special diet. Meat (pork, beef, or lamb) is consumed every month, but not necessarily every week. Poultry (chicken, goose, ostrich) eggs and sweets are consumed every week, but not necessarily every day. Vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes (hummus), cereals, olive oil, cheese, yogurt and fish are consumed almost every day.

It is generally believed that the beneficial effects of diet are determined by olive oil, but a research team led by Antonia Trichopoulou from the University of Athens showed that it is impossible to isolate any one component that gives a beneficial effect, and it manifests itself as a result of combining products. It has been argued that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is generally inversely correlated with mortality. That is, the stronger the features of the Mediterranean diet are expressed in human nutrition, the lower the incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet group had twice the daily intake of alpha-linolenic acid than the control group. Over the next two years, fewer cardiovascular events were reported in individuals on the Mediterranean diet (39 versus 76; p<0. 001), cases of sudden coronary death (6 versus 16; p = 0. 015) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (21 versus 43; p<0. 001). In both groups, serum cholesterol levels significantly decreased and the severity of other cardiovascular risk factors decreased. However, favorable changes were more noticeable in the Mediterranean diet group.

It is not without reason that all over the world, and especially in Japan, where the problems of improving the population's health are solved at the highest level, French and Italian restaurants have become very popular, and Japan has become one of the world leaders in the purchase of famous French wines.

There is nothing mysterious about the Mediterranean diet. It's just that in the modern industrial society, dairy products, red meat, as well as fast-food, instant products have become the main food products. Under the slogan "fight for a slim figure" consumption of pasta, rice and potatoes is noticeably reduced - allegedly because the carbohydrates they contain contribute to weight gain. And the inhabitants of the Mediterranean traditionally build their diet exactly the opposite, they use little red meat and eggs, but lean fish, seafood and poultry are in the first place.

The basic principles of seaside cuisine are pretty simple. Wheat, barley and hemp foods provide carbohydrates. Dishes with a high carbohydrate content are necessarily seasoned with garlic, onions, aromatic herbs, which, as it turned out, slow down the aging process of cells. Everything is cooked in olive oil, which stimulates digestion, activates the liver, etc. Fruits and vegetables are used daily. From dairy products, preference is given to low-fat cheeses and natural yoghurts.

It seems to be nothing complicated, but in fact the difference with the usual "city" food is huge, since all "Mediterranean" foods are rich in vitamin F, which is also called the vitamin of youth. Vitamin F is especially high in cereal products (pasta, sprouted wheat germ, cereals and wholemeal bread), fruits and vegetables, including chestnuts, hemp, sunflowers and nuts. In addition, such a diet is very rich in polysaccharides, the lack of which is extremely dangerous to health. It causes diseases of the digestive system, up to intestinal cancer.

The Mediterranean diet contains all the polysaccharides the body needs: cellulose (fruits and vegetables), pectins (apples, currants, pomegranates, carrots), plant gluten (cereals, algae, wild rice, hemp grains, some fruits - quince, prunes, etc. )).

Do not be afraid of pasta, if they are made from durum wheat. Then they are not only low in calories, but also rich in "slow" sugars, which provides the human body with the stability of the glucose content in the blood, that is, maintain a normal level of insulin with a relatively low calorie content. In short, the Mediterranean diet is a classic combination of business and pleasure. Go for it!

Typical menu for a day

Breakfast:Some fruits, some fresh bread, and fruit juice or water.

Lunch:Salad with tuna, anchovy and olives, drizzled with olive oil, a few glasses of water.

Dinner:Big bell peppers stuffed with rice, minced meat, tomatoes and herbs, drizzled with olive oil and baked. Salad and fresh bread. You can drink it with a glass of red wine.

In terms of body weight correction, this diet does not provide instant weight loss, but it does help develop healthy eating habits that will get rid of lost pounds forever.